Product life cycle management or PLM is an all-encompassing approach for innovation, new product development and introduction (NPDI) and product information management from ideation to end of life. PLM Systems as an enabling technology for PLM integrate people, data, processes, and business systems and provide a product information backbone for companies and their extended enterprise.
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement training and appraisal program and service administered and marketed by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and required by many DoD and U.S. Government contracts, especially in software development. CMU claims CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, division, or an entire organization. CMMI defines the following maturity levels for processes: Initial, Managed and Defined. Currently supported is CMMI Version 1.3. CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by CMU.
A company policy consists of rules and guidelines for employees to follow. There might be several policies, such as acceptable use policies (AUPs) for computer use and information security, corporate governance policies and customer support policies. Without effective enforcement, a company could be vulnerable to security breaches, loss of customers and possibly legal action.
The human resources department is usually in charge of coordinating the development and enforcement of company policies.
Specify the consequences of violating company policies in the policy document itself. Make sure that the policies are written down, in an employee handbook, posted on company notice boards and on the corporate intranet. All employees should sign forms stating that they have read and understood the policies, which can be done during new employee orientation. Prepare a separate set of guidelines for human resources and senior management on how to interpret and enforce the policies.
Set policies that you intend to enforce. If you create general-purpose, feel-good policies that are never enforced but look good in corporate brochures, then employees might start ignoring all policies because you have sent conflicting signals.
Apply policies equally.
Use an escalated system of enforcement according to policy violations in severity.
Meet with the employee who has violated a policy in the presence of a third party, such as a human resources professional. Depending upon the severity, you might need to review the details of the policy or explain why certain disciplinary actions are necessary.
Review the policy document periodically and make changes in content and enforcement guidelines. Business conditions, regulations and technologies change, and so should your policies. If the change is substantial in nature, arrange additional training to acquaint your employees with the new policies.
The top consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They set a tone at the top and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public.
Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions.
Efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization, since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.
Consist of supervisors, section leaders, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc.
Chief architect: the executive responsible for designing systems for High Availability and Scalability, specifically in technology companies.
Chief executive officer, CEO: The CEO of a corporation is the highest-ranking management officer of a corporation and has final decisions over human, financial, environmental and technical operations of the corporation. The CEO is also a visionary, often leaving day-to-day operations to the president, COO or division heads. Other corporate officers such as the COO, CFO, CIO, and division heads report to the CEO. The CEO is also often the chairman of the board, especially in closely held corporations and also often in public corporations. Recently, though, many public companies have been separating the roles of chairman and CEO to improve corporate governance. President and CEO is a popular combination if there is a separate chairman.
Chief financial officer or CFO: high-level corporate officer with oversight of corporate finances; reports to the CEO. May concurrently hold the title of treasurer or oversee such a position; finance deals with accounting and audits, while treasurer deals with company funds.
Chief information officer or CIO: high-level corporate manager with overall responsibility for the company's information resources and processing environment; generally reports to the CEO or COO. Particularly important in IT companies or companies that rely heavily on an IT infrastructure for their operations.
Chief knowledge officer or CKO: the CKO is responsible for managing intellectual capital and the custodian of knowledge management practices, usually in a legal organization.
Chief medical officer or CMO: especially in a pharmaceutical company, the person responsible for scientific and medical excellence of the company's research, development and products, or the highest ranking physician at a hospital. The title is used in many countries for the senior government official who advises on matters of public health importance.
Chief operating officer or COO/ director of operations for the nonprofit sector high-level corporate officer with responsibility for the daily operation of the company. In many ways, the selection of a COO is similar to the selection of a vice president of the United States: the role (including the power and responsibilities therein) can vary dramatically, depending on the style and needs of the president.
Chief product officer or CPO: responsible for all product-related matters. Usually includes product conception and development, production in general, innovation, project and product management. In many IT/telecommunications companies, this position is organically higher than the chief technical officer and includes release management and production. In small and mid-sized companies it can also play the role of the COO.
Chief technology officer or CTO (sometimes chief technical officer):–high-level corporate officer responsible for the company's technology/R&D direction. Now common in both IT/software and other technological fields as well, the focus on this position is typically overseeing the development of technology to be commercialized. (For an IT company, the subject matter would be similar to the CIO's, however the CTO's focus is technology for the firm to sell versus technology used for facilitating the firm's own operations.)
Chairman of the board 董事长: presiding officer of the corporate board of directors. The Chairman influences the board of directors, which in turn elects and removes the officers of a corporation and oversees the human, financial, environmental and technical operations of a corporation.
Chief of Staff 参谋长: is a corporate director level manager who has overall responsibility for the staff activity within the company who often would have responsibility of hiring and firing of the highest level managers and sometimes directors. They can work with and report directly to managing directors and the chief executive officer.