All notes
Managem

Outline

Wikipedia: Business Administration.

Notions

Conway's law

melConway.com: conway's law.

Conway's law:

...the interface structure of a software system necessarily will show a congruence with the social structure of the organization that produced it.

The law has important corollaries in management theory:

Because the design that occurs first is almost never the best possible, the prevailing system concept may need to change. Therefore, flexibility of organization is important to effective design.

Prisoner's dilemma

囚徒困境是博弈论的非零和博弈中具代表性的例子,反映个人最佳选择并非团体最佳选择。
最早是由美国普林斯顿大学数学家阿尔伯特·塔克(Albert tucker)1950年提出来的。

两个嫌疑犯(A和B)作案后被警察抓住,隔离审讯;警方的政策是“坦白从宽,抗拒从严”,如果两人都坦白则各判8 年;如果一人坦白另一人不坦白,坦白的放出去,不坦白的判10年;如果都不坦白则因证据不足各判1年。

对一次性囚徒困境博弈来说,最佳(点数最大化的)策略是简单地背叛,背叛是两种策略之中的支配性策略。这场博弈中唯一可能达到的纳什均衡,就是双方参与者都背叛对方,结果二人同样服刑2年。例子漂亮地证明了:非零和博弈中,帕累托最优和纳什均衡是相冲突的。

单次发生的囚徒困境,和多次重复的囚徒困境结果不会一样。在重复的囚徒困境中,博弈被反复地进行。因而每个参与者都有机会去“惩罚”另一个参与者前一回合的不合作行为。这时,合作可能会作为均衡的结果出现。欺骗的动机这时可能被受到惩罚的威胁所克服,从而可能导向一个较好的、合作的结果。作为反复接近无限的数量,纳什均衡趋向于帕累托最优。

PLM

PLM.info. Product life cycle management or PLM is an all-encompassing approach for innovation, new product development and introduction (NPDI) and product information management from ideation to end of life. PLM Systems as an enabling technology for PLM integrate people, data, processes, and business systems and provide a product information backbone for companies and their extended enterprise.

CMMI

Wikipedia. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement training and appraisal program and service administered and marketed by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and required by many DoD and U.S. Government contracts, especially in software development. CMU claims CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, division, or an entire organization. CMMI defines the following maturity levels for processes: Initial, Managed and Defined. Currently supported is CMMI Version 1.3. CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by CMU.

From version 1.3, CMMI supports agile, see this.

Basics

Enforce Company Policy

A company policy consists of rules and guidelines for employees to follow. There might be several policies, such as acceptable use policies (AUPs) for computer use and information security, corporate governance policies and customer support policies. Without effective enforcement, a company could be vulnerable to security breaches, loss of customers and possibly legal action.
The human resources department is usually in charge of coordinating the development and enforcement of company policies.

目标明确、方法可行、流程合理、激励到位、考核有效

流程在形式上没有问题,而是在执行中表现出不合理。不合理的原因有两个:外行管内行;责权利不对等。比如有些企业里营销老总不掌握业务代表的人事权,招聘和辞退都是人力资源说了算,这样如何保证代表的工作能力,又如何处理不该留用的员工,又怎么能保障执行力?这是外行管内行的典型表现。
部门之间要强化支持功能、淡化管理功能,尤其是不能让外行管内行。比如说财务部和销售部的关系,财务部的管理功能应该体现在两个方面,一是审核票据真实性和合理性,二是在做下一年度的预算时控制财务指标。但是有很多国内公司则不然,市场和销售部门的每一笔钱该花不该花掌握在财务部手里,而财务部不懂具体的营销业务,所以既不批也不拒,一直拖着,严重影响了销售进行。这实际上就是财务部的管理职能太强而支持功能太弱。营销的费用应该营销总监或副总说了算,只要没有超出年度的预算即可。

所谓的激励到位有三层意思:力度到位、描述到位和兑现到位。
激励力度要做到市场上有竞争力、员工中有吸引力、公司里有承受力。
激励的描述要简洁易懂,最好能够形象化。所谓的简洁易懂,比如说“百分百完成任务后超出部分每盒激励1块”,就比“百分百完成任务后超出部分按流向的百分之一发放奖金”要有吸引力;所谓的形象化,比如说“你今年完成任务就能买一辆帕萨特”,要比说“你今年完成任务能拿回款百分之3的奖金”要有吸引力。
兑现到位就是公司说的话一定要算数,因为公司原因造成的中途政策变化不能影响业务人员的年度奖金。

考核有效要做到三点:一是考核要真正发挥导向作用;二是避免人为因素干扰;三是处罚措施要严格执行不能估息。避免人为因素干扰的最佳手段就是考核指标全部是定量的或半定量,并且去除难以评价对错的指标。比如不设忠诚度、团队意识、创新能力、主动性等指标。有的公司设有代理商投诉一项,这项指标就很难评价对错,因为并非代理商投诉的都是有理的,如果对招商经理考核这个指标,只会迫使他向代理商“投诚”从而牺牲公司利益。
处罚措施必须严格执行,毫不含糊,否则就破坏了游戏规则,宽容了一个,损害了一批。

沟通第一位

在计划的制定过程中,如果执行者不参加,上下级之间没有良好沟通,执行者对管理者制定的这个计划缺少认同感,那么由此将导致被动执行。员工不是积极、主动地去完成计划,效果又怎么会好呢?
执行过程中,沟通的作用就更加重要。假设执行者遇到困难,他又不能通过方便、快捷的渠道和主管沟通,只好按照自己的理解和方式去解决问题。俗话说,'失之毫厘,差以千里'。执行者处理问题的方式,也许和主管的想法大相径庭,最后执行走样,就是不可避免的。

System architect

Levels

Wikipedia: management.

Top-level management

The top consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They set a tone at the top and develop strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public.

Middle-level managers

Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions.
Efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization, since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs.

First-level managers

Consist of supervisors, section leaders, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc.

All chief officers

Wikipedia.

Examples

Apple

ApplePressInfo.

Google

iveyBusinessJournal. Schmidt’s leadership practices could be summarized in the following five precepts: