All notes
Sysinternals

Intro

technet. The Sysinternals web site was created in 1996 by Mark Russinovich to host his advanced system utilities and technical information. Whether you’re an IT Pro or a developer, you’ll find Sysinternals utilities to help you manage, troubleshoot and diagnose your Windows systems and applications.

psping

On Azure, ICMP supported is turned off. But we can use psping instead.

ping CLJun21WS12R2A.cloudapp.net

Pinging CLJun21WS12R2A.cloudapp.net [23.100.76.67] with 32 bytes of data:
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.
Request timed out.

Ping statistics for 23.100.76.67:
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

psping CLJun21WS12R2A.cloudapp.net:56972

PsPing v2.01 – PsPing – ping, latency, bandwidth measurement utility
Copyright (C) 2012-2014, 2016 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals – www.sysinternals.com

TCP connect to 23.100.76.67:56972:
5 iterations (warmup 1) connecting test:
Connecting to 23.100.76.67:56972 (warmup): 60.44ms
Connecting to 23.100.76.67:56972: 61.28ms
Connecting to 23.100.76.67:56972: 63.41ms
Connecting to 23.100.76.67:56972: 63.69ms
Connecting to 23.100.76.67:56972: 60.41ms

TCP connect statistics for 23.100.76.67:56972:
  Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
  Minimum = 60.41ms, Maximum = 63.69ms, Average = 62.20ms

psexec

windowsItPro is a good article explaining the mechanism how psexec works.

PsExec starts an executable on a remote system and controls the input and output streams of the executable's process so that you can interact with the executable from the local system. PsExec does so by extracting from its executable image an embedded Windows service named Psexesvc and copying it to the Admin$ share of the remote system. PsExec then uses the Windows Service Control Manager API, which has a remote interface, to start the Psexesvc service on the remote system.

The Psexesvc service creates a named pipe, psexecsvc, to which PsExec connects and sends commands that tell the service on the remote system which executable to launch and which options you've specified. If you specify the -d (don't wait) switch, the service exits after starting the executable; otherwise, the service waits for the executable to terminate, then sends the exit code back to PsExec for it to print on the local console.